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tire--II

Treadwear
Main article: Treadwear_rating

The treadwear grade describes how long the tire manufacturer expects the tire to last. A Course Monitoring Tire (the standard tire that a test tire will be compared to) has a rating of "100". If a manufacturer assigns a treadwear rating of 200 to a new tire, they are indicating that they expect the new tire to have a useful lifespan that is 200% of the life of a Course Monitoring Tire. In general, manufacturers tend to overstate the treadwear of their tires in an effort to create the impression that their tires last a long time. The ability of manufacturers to report their own numbers makes comparison of treadwear ratings between companies useless. Ratings may still be useful within a manufacturer's own line of tires.

[edit] Tread lug

Tread lugs provide the contact surface necessary to provide traction. As the tread lug enters the road contact area, or footprint, it is compressed. As it rotates through the footprint it is deformed circumferentially. As it exits the footprint, it recovers to its original shape. During the deformation and recovery cycle the tire exerts variable forces into the vehicle.[citation needed] These forces are described as Force Variation.[citation needed]

[edit] Tread void

Tread voids provide space for the lug to flex and deform as it enters and exits the footprint. Voids also provide channels for rainwater, mud, and snow to be channeled away from the footprint. The void ratio is the void area of the tire divided by the entire tread area. Low void areas have high contact area and therefore higher traction on clean, dry pavement.

[edit] Rain groove

The rain groove is a design element of the tread pattern specifically arranged to channel water away from the footprint. Rain grooves are circumferential in most truck tires. Many high performance passenger tires feature rain grooves that are angled from the center toward the sides of the tire.[citation needed] Some tire manufacturers claim that their tread pattern is designed to actively pump water out from under the tire by the action of the tread flexing.[citation needed] This results in a smoother ride in different types of weather.[citation needed]

[edit] Sipe

Tread lugs often feature small narrow voids, or sipes, that improve the flexibility of the lug to deform as it traverses the footprint area. This reduces shear stress in the lug and reduces heat build up.[citation needed] Sipes also provide greater traction in icy conditions.

[edit] Wear bar

Wear bars (or wear indicators) are raised features located at the bottom of the tread grooves that indicate the tire has reached its wear limit. When the tread lugs are worn to the point that the wear bars connect across the lugs, the tires are fully worn and should be taken out of service.[3]

[edit] Contact patch

Main article: contact patch

The contact patch, or footprint, of the tire, is merely the area of the tread which is in contact with the road surface. This is the area which transmits forces between the tire and the road via friction. The length-to-width ratio of the contact patch will affect steering and cornering behavior.[citation needed]

[edit] Bead

The bead is that part of the tire which contacts the rim on the wheel. The bead is reinforced with steel wire, and compounded from high strength, low flexibility rubber. The bead seats tightly against the two rims on the wheel to ensure that a tubeless tire holds air without leakage. The bead fit is tight, to ensure the tire does not shift circumferentially as the wheel rotates. The width of the rim in relationship to the tire are a factor in the handling characteristics of an automobile because the rim supports the tire's profile.

[edit] Sidewall

The sidewall is that part of the tire that bridges between the tread and bead. The sidewall is reinforced with rubber and fabric plies that provide for strength and flexibility. The sidewall transmits the torque applied by the drive axle to the tread in order to create traction. The sidewall, in conjunction with the air inflation, also supports the load of the vehicle. Sidewalls are molded with manufacturer-specific detail, government mandated warning labels, and other consumer information, and sometimes decorative ornamentation.

Over time, rubber degrades. Ford[citation needed] has recommended that tires be replaced when they are 6 years old to prevent sudden failure, even if the tire looks undamaged. In tropical climates, such as in Singapore, tires degrade sooner than in temperate climates.[citation needed] Tires on seldom-used trailers are at the greatest risk of age-failure but some tires are built to withstand idleness. This is usually done by using nylon reinforcement. In the past rayon was used in tires but it ages quite badly.

[edit] Shoulder

The shoulder is that part of the tire at the edge of the tread as it makes transition to the sidewall.

[edit] Inner tube

the free dictionary.

Amost all bicycle tires, some motorcycle tires, and many tires for large vehicles such as passengers, semi trucks, and tractors are designed for use with inner tubes. Inner tubes are torus shaped balloons made from a material initially impervious to air leakage. The inner tubes are inserted into the tire and inflated to retain air pressure

来源:      时间:2008-11-1 13:44:07
 
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